PureDefense Collagen w/Bone Broth powder offers 15 grams of protein in the form of grass-fed beef bone broth and hydrolyzed collagen as a savory, comforting, warm delivery form to support immune function. Within the human body’s collagen is an extracellular protein that accounts for 25-30% of the total protein content. These hydrolyzed proteins offer a source of amino acid building blocks and are particularly high in proline/hydroxyproline, arginine and glycine. Arginine and glycine are key for creatine synthesis, while proline and hydroxyproline are a key component of cartilage and collagen in the body’s Numerous studies indicate that collagen peptides support skin and mucosal tissue integrity and elasticity, as well as joint comfort and function, in part by targeting cartilage synthesis and cytokine balance. EpiCor® is a fermentate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing various immune-supportive bioactive metabolites. Studies indicate EpiCor® promotes natural killer cell activation, as well as that of B cells and T cells, providing support for upper respiratory tract health and overall immune health. Research indicates that curcumin, reishi and turkey tails mushroom extracts have immunomodulatory effects. Reishi mushroom is included as a unique, highly purified, reishi mushroom-derived beta 1,3/1,6-D glucan extract. Turkey tails mushroom extract promotes white blood cell function, including lymphocyte, macrophage and natural killer cells and antibody’sproduction. Research suggests that curcumin moderates the cytokines IL-4, IL-8, and TNF-α that induce differentiation of helper T cells,as well as supports nasal respiratory function. This formula includes a unique turmeric extract that utilizes a water dispersible colloidal suspension of curcuminoids to enhance bioavailability. In an unpublished comparison study, this turmeric extract enhanced bioavailability 24-fold compared to standard curcumin extract, as measured by dose-normalized area under the curve, from 0-8 hours after intake. Aged fermented black garlic extract is concentrated in the sulfur-containing S-allyl-cysteine (SAC) andother bioactive compounds, including phenols and flavonoids. These compounds act as antioxidants in the body’s to protect tissues and support cellular function. Garlic has also demonstrated support for maintaining a healthy gut ecology and promoting healthy immune system function. A blend of organic cruciferous vegetables, as well as tomato, carrot, and spinach, offers flavor and phytonutrients.